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2020年江苏成人高考专升本英语易混词汇讲解

江苏成人高考网www.jtgov.cn 发布时间: 2020年10月16日

      1.able, capable, competent


  able为常用词,指具有做某事所需的力量,技巧,知识与时间等,一般下效率无关,用作定语表示能力超出平均水平。如:A cat is able to see in the dark. (猫在黑暗中能看见东西。)


  capable 指满足一般要求的能力,可以是表现出来的,也可是潜在的,搭配是be capable of +doing。用作定语,表示的能力没有able表示的能力强。如:He is capable of running a mile in a minute. (他能在一分钟内跑完一英里。)He is a very capable doctor. (他是一位很好的大夫。)


  competent 指“胜任”,“合格”,或受过专业技术等训练的,但不是超群的能力。如:A doctor should be competent to treat many diseases. (医生应该能治多种病。)


  2.aboard, abroad, board, broad


  aboard 在船(或飞机,车)上。如:I never went aboard a ship.


  abroad 副词,在国外或海外。如:He often goes abroad.


  board 为动词,上(船,飞机,车)。如:The passengers are boarding the plane now.


  broad 为形容词,宽广的。如:He has very broad shoulders.


  3.accept, receive


  accept 接受,receive“接到”,“收到”。如:I received an invitation yesterday, but I didn’t accept it. (昨天我收到了一个请柬,但并没有接受邀请。)


  4.accident, incident, event


  accident事故。如:a traffic accident (交通事故)


  incident“附带事件”,在政治上特指引起国际争端或战争的事件,事变。


  event “事件”,指特别重要的事件,通常是由以前的努力而产生的结果,也指国家和社会的事件。


  5. accomplish, complete, finish, achieve, attain


  accomplish表成功,强调完成的结果而不是过程。如:Because of his hard word, things are accomplished. (由于他的努力,事情都已完成了。)


  complete 表示积极的完成,更具体地指建筑、工程等的完成。如:Has he complete his novel yet? (他的小说写完了吗?)


  finish 最常用,后接动词的-ing形式,表示在一个活动的连续过程中完成了最后的一步或阶段。如:I’ll finish the job alone. (我要独自完成这项工作。)


  achieve 完成,实现,强调通过努力而达到目的。如:You will achieve success if you work hard.


  Attain达到,实现,常用于一般人的能力不易达到的目的。如:Greater efforts are needed before we can attain our goals.


  6.accurate, correct, exact, precise


  accurate准确的,精确的。如:Clocks in railway stations should be accurate.(火车站的钟应该是准确的。)


  correct“正确的”,指符合一定的标准或准则,含有“无错误的”意味。它的反义词是incorrect, wrong.


  exact“精确的”,“恰好的”,比“大体上正确”更进一步,表“丝毫不差”。它的反义词是inexact。


  precise强调“精确”,“精密”。


  7.accuse, charge, sue


  accuse 指责,指控,常与of 搭配。如:His boss accused him of carelessness.


  charge 常与with搭配。如:The police charged the driver with reckless driving.


  sue 常与for 搭配。如:Smith sued his neighbor for damaging his house.


  8.achieve, acquire, require, inquire


  achieve(成功地)完成,实现。如:He will never achieve anything unless he works harder. (如他不努力工作,将会一事无成。)


  acquire取得,获得,学到。如:acquire knowledge (获得知识)


  inquire打听,询问。如:inquire a person’s name(问一个人的姓名)


  require需要。如:We require more help. (我们需要更多的帮助。)


  9.act, action, deed


  act 用作名词时,与action, deed均可表“行为”,“举动”。Act指时间较短的个人行动或行为,强调结果。如:The farmer caught the boys in the act of stealing his apples. (农夫在孩子们正偷他的苹果时把他们抓住了。)


  action较正式,往往指不止包含一个步骤,且持续时间较长的行为或行动,强调行为的过程。如:Actions are more important than words. (行动比语言更重要。)


  deed为正式用语,多指伟大的,显著的,感人的行为。如:They thanked him for his good deeds. (他们感谢他做的好事。)


  10.actual, true, real, genuine


  actual 意为“实际的”,“现实的”,指所形容的事物在事实上已经发生或存在,而不是仅在理论上可能发生或存在的。


  true“真实的”,指与实际相符,而非虚假。


  genuine “真的”,“非冒充的”,“货真价实的”,强调正宗而非冒牌。


  11.adequate, enough, sufficient


  adequate 足够的,指数量多,适合需要的数量。


  enough足够的,指数量多,足够满足某种目的或愿望。


  sufficient同enough,常可互换使用。但sufficient指数量多,足够满足某种需要,在口语中常用enough,在书面语中常用sufficient,在不易肯定时多用enough。Enough可放在被修饰名词后,且可作副词,sufficient则不可这么用。


  12.admit, confess


  两者都表“承认”。


  admit指大胆地承认以前试图不论或推诿的坏事。如:John has admitted to breaking the window. (约翰已承认打破了窗玻璃。)


  Confess常指承认错误,罪行等。如:The thief confessed his crime to the police. (小偷向警察承认了罪行。)


  13.advice,advise


  advice劝告(名词)。如:I want to give you some advice.


  advise劝告(动词)。如:What do you advise me to do?


  14.adopt, adapt


  adopt (1)收养。如:Since they have no children of their own, they decided to adopt a little girl. (他们自己没有孩子,所以决定收养一个小女孩。)(2)采纳,采用,通过。如:He adopted our suggestion.(他采纳了我们的建议。)


  adopt与adapt词形相近,后者的意思是“使适合”,“改编”等。


  15.advance, proceed, progress


  均可表“前进”。


  advance表向一个特定的目的地,在一定的时间或空间内稳定地向前运动。如:Napoleon’s army advanced on Moscow. (拿破仑的军队向莫斯科挺进。)


  proceed强调从一处向另一处的运动,常表停顿后继续前进。如:They proceeded from London to Paris. (他们从伦敦往巴黎前进。)


  peogress 多表自然过程,指生长,发展等稳定地或循环往复地前进。如:The year is progressing, it will soon be summer. (光阴似箭,很快又是夏天了。)


  16.advantage, benefit, profit


  advantage 常指一种使某人处于比其他人相对有利的地位,机会或时机。如:He had the advantage of good education. (受过良好的教育对他十分有利。)


  profit 多指报偿或报偿性的收入。如Did you make any profit last year? (你去年赚钱了吗?)


  benefit 指物质利益或精神方面的好处。如:I get no personal benefit from the business.(我个人从这家企业中并不获益。)


  17.advise, convince, persuade


   均可表“劝说”。


  advise表建议,规劝某人应该做某事或如何做。如:He advised me to put my money in the bank. (他劝我把钱存入银行。)


  convince指向某人陈述事实,运用推理或逻辑证明使某人信服。如:We convinced Smith to go by train rather than plane. (我们说服了史密斯乘火车而不乘飞机前往。)


  persuade指用感情说服某人去做某事。如:I persuaded him to go back to work. (我说服他回去工作了。)


  18.affect, effect


  affect影响(动词)。如Smoking affects health.


  effect效果,影响(名词)。如:Government policy will not have any effect on us.


  19.afford, provide, supply


  都有“提供,供给”的意思。


  afford一般只用于抽象事物。


  provide 和supply意思相同,两个词都和with连用,构成provide /supply somebody with something的结构。


  20.agree, consent


  agree 为常用词。如:Do you agree to the condition? (你同意这个条件吗?)


  consent为正式用词,多用于上下级的关系,表示同意别人的要求或请求。如:Did the king consent to your plan?(国王同意你的计划吗?)


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